3. Soviet Montage and Formalism
a. Pudovkin's concept of constructive editing is that meaning is created through the juxtaposition of shots and not the shots. He used close ups put together to create a unified meaning. He believed that long shots were too close to reality and that filmmakers should only use close ups, textures, and symbols. He believed these montages were the most effective way to convey the idea underlying real life.
b. Kuleshov believed that ideas in cinema are created by linking fragmentary details to produce a unified action. The Kuleshov effect shows that emotion is produced not by the actor's performance, but by the juxtapositions. Films that involves a character who has little dialogue at all use this effect like in the movie Cast Away with Tom Hanks. He is all alone on the island and the audience is shown his emotion by his actions.
c. Eisentein believed life was about constant change and conflict of opposites. Also believed that each shot must be incomplete, contributory rather than self-contained. It needs conflict of thesis and antithesis produces a new idea. Produced contrasting images in the collision montage of Odessa Steps. In the Odessa Steps scene, there is fast cuts and short shots of the many different individuals in the scene. Some of the characters in the film like the mother and the baby are not filmed all at once, but at different times.
4. Andre Bazin and Realism
a. Andre Bazin
b. What realist filmmakers strive for in their work is
c. Techniques that realists use in their filmmaking is reduced editing, deep focus, and synchronized sound were used, as well the cinematography mentioned in the above answer.