5 kinds of film writing include Formal Analysis, Film History, Ideological Papers, Cultural Studies, and Discussion of the Auteur. Formal analysis is taking parts of a film and describing how each part is significant to the film as a whole and why it is significant and also trying to find the purpose of each one. Film history is that all films involve history and reflect the culture's history and it's values and ideas. There is production history (how, why, when the film was made), they have distribution and release histories, and might reflect historical trends. Ideological papers are about the film's beliefs and ideas that it promotes and may be manipulating our feelings about a certain set of values. Cultural studies shows how films reflect the cultures and nations they are produced in and since other nations have different values, they produce different sorts of films. Differences in films may reflect trends in national cinema. Discussion of the Auteur is the understanding of a film based on the director or single person and that one person retains control.
This helps us understand the common themes in films by the same director.
Annotating shot sequences involves labeling each shot in the scene. This will help us see a pattern in camera movement and editing decisions that helps us understand how the director made the film and why the film has a certain effect on the audience.
When the author says "think beyond the frame", she implies that there is more meaning within the film, by thinking about the outside factors that one considers like who made the film and what can we learn from the films genre.